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Gut brains


The human gastrointestinal tract has half a billion neurons embedded in its lining. Often described as the “second brain,” it can act and react autonomously, and even has its own supply of serotonin and dopamine. 

Kidney stone paradox

Simpson's paradox

Statistics are tricky. Consider this: of two treatments for kidney stones, Treatment A is better on average for large stones and small stones. But consider all stones together and Treatment B is better. This is Simpson’s paradox.

Immortal dog


Some time more than 200 years ago, a dog or wolf in China or Siberia got cancer. It was a strange type of cancer: the cancer cells were contagious. That cell line is still alive today, and will probably be alive forever.